Quality survey Health benefits Safety Reading labels Ask the supplier Standards & regulations


Testing news
Ask the expert
Contact us
Privacy policy

Research news

Americans Consume Less Chromium Than Estimated Adequate Intake Level
Purchase NY, 14 April 2003

Research Results Presented at Experimental Biology 2003

A new study presented today at Experimental Biology 2003 analyzed consumption of chromium food sources using data from the Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals (CSFII) for 1994-1996 and determined that Americans may not be meeting the Institute of Medicine's (IOM) Adequate Intake (AI) for chromium. Research suggests that low intake of chromium may be linked to insulin resistance, a condition affecting one in three Americans and associated with obesity, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease.

Chromium is an essential mineral that enhances insulin activity to help promote carbohydrate, fat and protein metabolism. "Overall the study suggests that American diets are inadequate in the essential mineral chromium," states Dr. Vijaya Juturu, lead investigator, Nutritional Scientist, Nutrition 21, Inc. Dr. Juturu adds, "Chromium is found in very small quantities in foods and it is difficult to estimate how much chromium we normally consume."

Dietary chromium content in food is variable and influenced by processing and cooking at high temperatures. Intakes of chromium from select food sources known to be high in chromium, such as wheat, cooked peas, American cheese, liver, egg and margarine were calculated using CSFII96. More Caucasians reported consumption of the selected high chromium food sources than did other groups.

The IOM recently published that the AI for chromium is 25-35 mcg per day, which was determined by estimating the average amount of chromium a healthy American obtains from the diet. The AI for chromium is substantially lower than the Reference Daily Intake (RDI) of 120 mcg. Dietary chromium alone may not be enough to meet the needs of this important mineral. Chromium supplementation is available to help Americans meet their chromium needs for healthy insulin function.

Research has shown that daily supplementation with 200-1000 mcg per day of chromium, as chromium picolinate, increases insulin function and promotes blood sugar metabolism in both obese people and people with type 2 diabetes. "Chromium is critical for the many health areas impacted by poor insulin function, such as diabetes and heart disease," comments James Komorowski, MS, co-investigator, VP, Technical Services and Scientific Affairs, Nutrition 21, Inc.

The study, "Consumption of Selected Food Sources of Chromium in the Diets of American Adults based on the CSFII Data Base 1994-1996" was funded by Nutrition 21, Inc.

Consumption of Selected Food Sources of Chromium in the diets of American Adults Based on the CSFII Data Base 1994-1996

Authors: Vijaya Juturu(1), James R Komorowski(1), Gloria Hsheih(2). (1) Research and Development, Nutrition 21, Inc., 4 Manhattanville Road, Purchase, NY 10577, (2) Human health and development, Penn State University, University Park, PA.


Chromium is an essential trace metal required for glucose, lipid and protein metabolism. Chromium is found in very small quantities in foods. It is difficult to estimate how much chromium we normally consume and how much chromium we require each day. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the consumption of selected food sources of chromium (wheat, peas, cooked, american cheese, liver, egg, chicken breast, margarine, haddock, ham, chicken and turkey, oyster, coffee, tea, wine and beer)—and to calculate the intakes of chromium by using data from the CSFII conducted from 1994 to 1996.

In this study, the consumption of chromium food sources and estimated intakes (less than 20 mg/day) are lower than the IOM's adequate intake levels (25-35 mg/day). The current database is not adequate to determine exact dietary chromium intake because the content of chromium in foods is variable among different food lots and may be influenced by processing and cooking at high temperatures. Overall, the study suggested that US diets are inadequate in chromium, an essential metal.

About Nutrition 21

Nutrition 21, Inc. develops and manufactures nutritional products whose health benefits are substantiated by clinical research. Nutrition 21 currently holds 35 patents for nutrition products, 22 for chromium compounds and how they can used. More information is available at http://www.nutrition21.com.


Nutrition 21, Inc.end-of-story


Health benefits Safety Reading labels Ask the supplier Standards & regulations Contact us

(c) Copyright 1999-2003 Dietary Supplement Quality Initiative. For permission to reprint, please contact our editor.